Hyalomma marginatum is a hard tick species occurring in southern Europe, South Asia and Africa. It occurs in various biotopes characterised by low humidity such as steppe, savannah and lightly wooded hill and valley biotopes.
Hyalomma marginatum is a two-host species moulting from larva to nymph on its first host (especially hares, hedgehogs and birds) and infesting the second host (mainly sheep, goats, swine, cattle and horses) as an adult. Both larvae and nymphs feed without leaving the host and spend several days on its host. The immature stages stay for a long time on the host (12–26 days) which enables them to be passively transported by migrating birds over large distances.
Hyalomma marginatum is the most important vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.